Publications / Case Studies / Media

publications and papers discussing findings regarding metaplastic breast cancer

This list of publications, case studies, and media concern findings on metaplastic breast cancer. If you know of one that we have not included, please contact us and let us know.


8/2018 Comparative Effectiveness of an mTOR-Based Systemic Therapy Regimen in Advanced, Metaplastic and Nonmetaplastic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous disease with subtypes having different “targetable” molecular aberrations. Metaplastic breast cancers (MpBCs) are typically TNBCs and commonly have alterations in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. We previously reported efficacy for an mTOR-based chemotherapy regimen in MpBC. To determine if tumor subtype influences prognosis, we compared treatment outcomes of patients with MpBC with those of patients with nonmetaplastic TNBC receiving an mTOR-based systemic therapy regimen.

To read more click HERE

6/2018  Genomic profiling of metaplastic breast carcinomas reveals genetic heterogeneity and relationship to ductal carcinoma.

Excerpt of Abstract: Metaplastic breast carcinomas comprise a histologically heterogenous group of tumors. Although most are triple (estrogen/progesterone receptor, HER2) negative, these rare tumors are clinicopathologically distinct from other triple negative carcinomas and may be aggressive with worse chemotherapy responses. On the other hand, metaplastic carcinomas are histologically diverse, which is reflected in gene expression differences among subtypes. Whether metaplastic carcinomas are genetically distinct from other triple negative cancers and whether genetic differences underlie histologic subtypes remains poorly understood.

To read more click HERE

6/2018 Impact of metaplastic histology (MpBC) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients (pts) receiving neoadjuvant systemic therapy (NAST).

Background: Abstract excerpt: MpBCs are aggressive cancers, often TNBC, and considered chemo-resistant, such that some providers avoid NAST. Using data from an IRB approved prospective trial, we compared characteristics and outcomes between MpBC and non-metaplastic (non-MpBC) TNBC pts receiving NAST.

To read more about this poster presentation at the 2018 ASCO Annual Meeting click here

To view the poster from the presentation click here

4/2018 CDKN2A loss and PIK3CA mutation in myoepithelial‐like metaplastic breast cancer

Abstract excerpt: Metaplastic breast carcinoma comprises a heterogeneous group of tumours with poorly understood pathogenesis. A subset of metaplastic breast cancers show myoepithelial differentiation and constitute a morphological spectrum with ill‐defined borders from fibromatosis‐like spindle cell carcinoma to myoepithelial carcinoma. In a series of 34 metaplastic breast cancers with spindle cell and myoepithelial differentiation, we found recurrent genetic aberrations, which set them apart from other metaplastic breast cancers and suggest a unique pathogenesis.

To read this study in its entirety click here

4/2018 Clinical Next-Generation Sequencing for Precision Oncology in Rare Cancers

Background: The European Society for Medical Oncology defines rare cancers as 5 or fewer cases per 100,000 persons/year. For many rare cancers, no standard of care exists, and treatment is often extrapolated. Identifying potentially targetable genomic alterations is a rational approach to improving treatment options. We sought to catalog these mutations in rare tumors and assess their clinical utility.

To read this study in its entirety click here

4/2018 Metaplastic breast carcinoma composed of epithelial–myoepithelial carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma

Rationale: Metaplastic breast carcinomas are a group of breast malignancies with varying histomorphological characteristics and prognoses. The tumor composed of epithelial -myoepithelial carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma was not reported previously.

To read this study in its entirety click here

3/2018 Clinicopathological features of metaplastic breast carcinoma.

Background: Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast (MpBC) is defined as a group of heterogeneous malignant neoplasms that contain glandular and non-glandular components with mixed epithelial and mesenchymal differentiations.

To read this study in its entirety click here

3/2018 Rare case of metaplastic breast cancer in a man.

Abstract: Metaplastic breast cancer (MBC) in men is an extremely rare entity. MBC is typically very aggressive with a poor prognosis. In men, it has only been reported three times in the literature. We report a 47-year-old man who presented with right-sided breast erythema and nipple inversion. Mammogram revealed a 2.4 cm spiculated mass. Initial pathology was inconclusive; however, right-sided simple mastectomy showed invasive metaplastic carcinoma with adenosquamous histology. He received adjuvant chemotherapy with 4 cycles of dose dense Adriamycin and cyclophosphamide followed by 12 weeks of paclitaxel and chest wall radiation. Although oestrogen receptor status was 1%, tamoxifen was not given due to recent diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Two years after treatment, he is currently living with no signs of recurrence. This case will serve as a useful addition to the current literature discussing successful diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of a man with MBC.

To read this study in its entirety click here

9/2017 Metaplastic breast carcinoma: Analysis of 31 cases from a single institute

Purpose: Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast (MBC) accounts for less than 1% of all mammary tumors. This study aimed at revision of the clinico-pathological features, treatment strategy and outcome for MBC patients presented to the Kuwait Cancer Control Center to define the clinical behavior and prognostic factors of these neoplasms in our population.

To read this study in its entirety click here

8/2017 Metaplastic Carcinoma Breast: A Clinical Analysis of Nine Cases

Abstract: Metaplastic Breast Carcinoma (MBC) is a rare heterogeneous group of primary breast malignancies with different subgroups; exhibits a variety of histopathologic patterns and appears to be both epithelial and mesenchymal in origin. The ideal treatment for MBC remains unknown, due to its low incidence and pathological variability. Owing to its rarity, MBC has been treated as a variant of Invasive Duct Carcinoma (IDC). But it has poorer prognosis as compared to IDC. This is a case series to evaluate clinicopathologic characteristics and the multi-disciplinary treatment of nine MBC patients treated in a single institute.

To read this study in its entirety click here

7/2017  The Landscape of Somatic Genetic Alterations in Metaplastic Breast Carcinomas

Purpose: Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) is a rare and aggressive histologic type of breast cancer, predominantly of triple-negative phenotype, and characterized by the presence of malignant cells showing squamous and/or mesenchymal differentiation. We sought to define the repertoire of somatic genetic alterations and the mutational signatures of MBCs.

To read this study in its entirety click here

5/2017 The epidemiology of metaplastic breast cancer: A review of 2,500 cases from the national cancer database.

Background: Metaplastic breast cancer (MBC) is a rare, aggressive, sarcomatoid breast cancer that was first described in 1973 but only became recognized as a histologically distinct entity in 2000. Given the paucity of data on the epidemiology of MBC, we performed a population-based analysis to delineate sociodemographic and clinicopathological characteristics associated with increased likelihood of MBC diagnosis.

To read this study in its entirety click here.

4/2017 Targeting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR Pathway for the Treatment of Mesenchymal Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Evidence From a Phase 1 Trial of mTOR Inhibition in Combination With Liposomal Doxorubicin and Bevacizumab.

Abstract Importance: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) classified by transcriptional profiling as the mesenchymal subtype frequently harbors aberrations in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, raising the possibility of targeting this pathway to enhance chemotherapy response. Up to 30% of mesenchymal TNBC can be classified histologically as metaplastic breast cancer, a chemorefractory group of tumors with a mixture of epithelial and mesenchymal components identifiable by light microscopy. While assays to identify mesenchymal TNBC are under development, metaplastic breast cancer serves as a clinically identifiable surrogate to evaluate potential regimens for mesenchymal TNBC.

To read this study in its entirety click here.

2/2017 Metaplastic Breast Cancer: Molecular Typing and Identification of Potential Targeted Therapies at a Single Institution

Background: Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) is a rare and aggressive histologic subtype of breast cancer comprising approximately 0.5% to 5.0% of all invasive breast cancers with a poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. We investigated MBC at our institution to evaluate outcomes and investigate the molecular profile of our cohort to determine the presence of mutations for which there are targeted therapies.

To read this study in its entirety click here.

12/2016 Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast: A case series and review of the literature

Purpose: Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) is a rare aggressive type of breast cancer, which accounts
for less than 1% of breast tumors. Since its recognition as a distinct pathological entity in 2000, number of
MBC patients has been increasing over years. We aimed to report a series of 7 cases of MBC treated in our

To read this study in its entirety click here.

6/2016 Management and Outcomes in Metaplastic Breast Cancer.

Background: Metaplastic breast cancer (MBC) constitutes a rare clinical entity with special clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features. Resistance to systemic therapies, whether chemotherapy or hormonal therapy, is among its main characteristics, which in turn explains the poor prognosis and renders its management a challenge. Thus, the scope of the present review is to discuss the current therapeutic strategies for MBC in clinical practice and the corresponding outcomes and to suggest possible directions for future research. Potential novel targeted therapies could provide a hope for better outcomes but limited data are available owing to the rarity of MBC. As knowledge accumulates on the pathogenesis and genetic characteristics of MBC, emphasis should be given to the implementation of more targeted treatments, which will allow more efficient and individualized management of the disease.

To read this study in its entirety click here.

12/2015 Comprehensive Profiling of Metaplastic Breast Carcinoma Reveals Frequent Over-Expression of PD-L1

Background : Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) is a rare subtype of breast carcinoma less responsive to conventional chemotherapy relative to usual breast carcinomas such as ductal and lobular subtype. In molecular terms, MBC usually clusters with triple negative breast cancers (TNBC), but MBCs portray a worse prognosis in comparison with TNBC. Published studies investigating MBCs for specific biomarkers of therapy response are rare and limited by the methodological approaches.

To read more about this poster presentation click here.

12/2015 Metaplastic Breast Carcinoma Versus Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

Abstract: Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) differs from classic invasive ductal carcinomas regarding incidence, pathogenesis, and prognosis. The purpose of this study was to compare patients with MBC with clinicopathologic and treatment-matched patients with triple-negative breast carcinoma (TNBC) in terms of response to treatment, progression, and survival.

To read this study in its entirety click here.

9/2015 Comparing 126 TNBC MpBC tumors at Caris LIfe Sciences

Researcher Rebecca Feldman discusses a research project done in 2014 for Caris Life Sciences. 126 Metaplastic tumors that were profiled at Caris were analyzed for similarities and potential drug targets.

7/2015 Inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway for the treatment of patients with metastatic metaplastic breast cancer.

Background: Mesenchymal/metaplastic breast cancers (MpBCs) are often triple-negative (TNBC), and chemo-refractory, and can harbor phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3kinase) alterations; thus, therapy with mTor inhibitors may demonstrate activity.

To read this study in its entirety click here.

2/2015 Metaplastic Breast Cancer: Clinical Overview and Molecular Aberrations for Potential Targeted Therapy

Abstract: Metaplastic breast cancer is a rare subtype of invasive mammary carcinoma, with an aggressive behavior and usually poor outcome. Responses to systemic chemotherapy are suboptimal compared to patients with standard invasive ductal carcinoma. Limited data are available in regards to best treatment modalities, including chemotherapy. This review gives an overview of metaplastic breast cancer and its clinical and pathologic characteristics, in addition to treatment strategies, clinical trials, and future directions.

To read this study in its entirety click here.

10/2014 Carcinosarcoma Masquerading as Giant Cystic Hematomasurekha

Abstract: Carcinoarcoma of breast is rare tumor with aggressive behaviour and poor prognosis. Histologically it is biphasic tumor with epithelial and mesenchymal component. Very few cases of carcinosarcoma, its presentation and behaviour have been reported in the literature, and due to its bizarre behaviour it is a diagnostic challenge to pathologist and clinicians. Here we present a rare case of carcinosarcoma breast in a 55-year-old female who initially presented with cystic mass( lump) in right breast which was reported as organised hematoma on FNAC, on frozen divtion it was diagnosed as malignant cystic tumour. This was followed by mastectomy. Histopathology with immune markers, the case was diagnosed as metaplastic carcinoma with biphasic type called carcinosarcoma. The case merits presentation because of its rare presentation as cystic lesion and difficult to diagnose mainly due to sarcomatous elements. An accurate diagnosis of this aggressive tumour is essential in order to optimally tailor adjuvant therapy.

To read this study in its entirety click here.

9/2014 Metaplastic Breast Cancer: Pathological Subtypes, Clinical Presentation, Imaging Characteristics, Immunohistochemistry, Treatment and Prognosis.

Abstract: Metaplastic breast cancer is a rare subtype of breast cancer that is histologically heterogeneous, being composed of both sarcomatous and epithelial components. It presents as rapidly growing palpable masses. Incidence of nodal metastasis is low, as compared to intraductal carcinoma, but it has a high metastatic potential and more chances of local recurrence. Many different pathological classifications are available, the most popular being “Wargotz and Norris classification”. Imaging features mimic those of intraductal carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, these tumors show a basal/myoepithelial phenotype with positivity for cytokeratins, AE1/AE3, smooth muscle actin, p63, alpha B-crystallin, etc. These tumors show no or very low positivity for hormone receptors or HER-2 over expression. Therefore, they are often called triple negative carcinomas. They are aggressive tumors with suboptimal response to standard chemotherapy regimens. Overall prognosis of the patients with metaplastic breast cancer is worse than the patients with intraductal breast carcinoma. Further research is needed for formulating targeted therapies for this aggressive tumor.

To read this study in its entirety click here.

11/2013  Metaplastic breast cancer: histologic characteristics, prognostic factors and systemic treatment strategies

Abstract: Metaplastic breast cancer (MBC) is a rare subtype of invasive breast cancer that tends to have an aggressive clinical presentation as well as a variety of distinct histologic designations. Few systemic treatment options are available for MBC, as it has consistently shown a suboptimal response to standard chemotherapy regimens. These characteristics result in a worse overall prognosis for patients with MBC compared to those with standard invasive breast cancer. Due to its rarity, data focusing on MBC is limited. This review will discuss the clinical presentation, breast imaging findings, histologic and molecular characteristics of MBC as well as potential future research directions.

To read this study in its entirety click here.

5/2013 Triple-Negative Phenotype of Poorly-differentiated Metaplastic Breast Carcinoma in a Male: An Oncological Rarity

Abstract: Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) is an extremely rare breast malignancy having highly aggressive clinicopathological behaviour and dismal prognosis. A 75 years old man presented with a painless lump on right side of his chest along with two additional lumps in the ipsilateral axillary and inguinal areas. Microscopic evaluation and immunohistochemistry of trucut tissue biopsies of the lumps and that of mastectomy specimen revealed a triple-negative phenotype of poorlydifferentiated metaplastic breast carcinoma with metastatic deposits to the axillary and inguinal lymph nodes. Exhaustive internet research has revealed only a few case reports of MBC in the men; thus highlighting its absolute oncological rarity.

To read this study in its entirety click here.

4/2013 Metaplastic Breast Carcinoma in the Lungs: A Case Report

Abstract: Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast is a rare, aggressive form of cancer occurring in less than 1% of all breast cancers. Spindle cell carcinoma is a rare variant of the metaplastic carcinoma seen in less than 10% of such cases. The prognosis of spindle cell breast cancers is poor, hence aggressive treatment with surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation is required. Here we report a case of a 62-year-old female with metastatic metaplastic breast cancer to the lungs.

To read this study in its entirety click here.

6/2012 Treatment Options for Metaplastic Breast Cancer

Abstract: Metaplastic breast cancer (MBC) is a malignancy characterized by the histologic presence of two or more cellular types, commonly a mixture of epithelial and mesenchymal components. MBC is rare relative to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), representing less than 1% of all breast cancers. Other than a lower rate of lymph node metastases, MBC tumors display poorer prognostic features relative to IDC. Due to its low incidence and pathological variability, the ideal treatment paradigm for MBC is unknown. Because of its rarity, MBC has been treated as a variant of IDC. Despite similar treatment regimens, however, patients with MBC have worse outcomes. Recent research is focused on biological differences between MBC and IDC and potential novel targets for chemotherapeutic agents. This paper serves as a summation of current literature on approaches to the multidisciplinary treatment of patients with MBC.

To read this study in its entirety click here.

11/2011 A Phase I Trial of Liposomal Doxorubicin, Bevacizumab and Temsirolimus in Patients with Advanced Gynecologic and Breast Malignancies

Purpose: Liposomal doxorubicin (D) and bevacizumab (A) are active single agents in gynecologic and breast malignancies which share a resistance mechanism: up-regulation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α). We therefore added temsirolimus (T), which inhibits HIF-1α, to D and A (DAT). Trial objectives were assessment of safety, preliminary efficacy and identification of biologic response correlates.

To read this study in its entirety click here.

7/2011 Responses to Liposomal Doxorubicin, Bevacizumab, and Temsirolimus in Metaplastic Carcinoma of the Breast: Biologic Rationale and Implications for Stem-Cell Research in Breast Cancer

Summary: MpBCs seem to represent a subset of tumors enriched in epithelial to mesenchymal transition and cancer stem-cell (CSC) characteristics, which may account for their resistance to therapy and propensity to metastasize.9 Like tumors that arise from CSCs, MpBCs display high activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway components and commonly carry mutations in PI3K or loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN).9 MpBCs also show strong correlation with a CSC-derived genomic profile that is heavily weighted for PI3K activity.9,15 Like CSC-derived tumors, most MpBCs also display high levels of angiogenesis and commonly express VEGF and HIF-1α.1618 On the basis of these features, we treated five patients with metastatic MpBC on a phase I clinical trial of liposomal doxorubicin, bevacizumab, and temsirolimus (DAT).

To read this study in its entirety click here.

2/2006 Biphasic metaplastic sarcomatoid carcinoma of the breast

Background: Breast biphasic metaplastic sarcomatoid carcinoma (MSC) is rare and aggressive. We analyzed 100 patients treated at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) with 213 MSC and 98 carcinosarcoma patients identified through the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results (SEER) database to describe clinical and pathologic characteristics.

To read this study in its entirety click here.